High Fiber Food Choices

Essen Sie mehr von diesem Kohlenhydrat – sogar Nahrungsergänzungsmittel machen einen großen Unterschied

Zu den ballaststoffreichen Lebensmitteln gehören Bananen, Vollkornbrot, Äpfel und Brokkoli.

Der menschliche Darm hat sich so entwickelt, dass er von fermentierbaren Fasern gedeiht, nicht von Burgern.

Es kann für Kunden entmutigend sein, aus der riesigen Auswahl an Ballaststoffergänzungsmitteln in der Apotheke oder im Supermarkt zu wählen. Sie bieten auch eine Vielzahl von gesundheitsbezogenen Angaben, ohne dass sie einer FDA-Zulassung oder Überprüfung unterliegen. Wie können Sie dann feststellen, welche Ergänzung für Sie wirksam und am besten ist?

Laut einer detaillierten Analyse der Darmmikroben von Forschungsteilnehmern, die drei verschiedene Arten von Nahrungsergänzungsmitteln in verschiedenen Reihenfolgen einnahmen, profitierten diejenigen, die vor der Studie die geringste Menge an Ballaststoffen zu sich genommen hatten, am meisten von Nahrungsergänzungsmitteln, unabhängig von der Art, die sie einnahmen.

„Die Menschen, die am besten reagierten, hatten zu Beginn die wenigsten Ballaststoffe gegessen“, sagte Studienleiter Lawrence David, außerordentlicher Professor für Molekulargenetik und Mikrobiologie an der Duke University.

Ballaststoffe haben Vorteile, die über den beworbenen leichteren Stuhlgang hinausgehen. Fermentierbare Ballaststoffe, die aus Nahrungskohlenhydraten bestehen, die bestimmte Bakterien verdauen können, während der menschliche Darm dies nicht kann, sind eine entscheidende Nährstoffquelle, die Ihre Darmmikroben benötigen, um gesund zu bleiben.

„Wir haben uns entwickelt, um auf Nährstoffe angewiesen zu sein, die unsere Mikrobiome für uns produzieren“, sagte Zack Holmes, ehemaliger Doktorand im David-Labor und Co-Autor von zwei neuen Artikeln über Ballaststoffe. „Aber mit der jüngsten Umstellung der Ernährung weg von ballaststoffreichen Lebensmitteln haben wir aufgehört, unseren Mikroben das zu geben, was sie brauchen.“

Wenn sich Ihre Darmbakterien ballaststoffreich ernähren, produzieren sie mehr kurzkettige Fettsäuren, die Sie vor Darmerkrankungen, Darmkrebs und sogar Fettleibigkeit schützen. Insbesondere erhöhen sie die Produktion von Butyrat, einem Fett[{” attribute=””>acid that serves as the energy source for the intestinal cells themselves. Butyrate has been shown to increase the gut’s resistance to infections, reduce inflammation, and create happier, healthier intestinal lining cells.

David’s research group was interested in whether it might be necessary to “personalize” fiber supplements for different people in light of the wide range of supplements on the market. Different fermentable fibers have been shown to have different effects on the production of short-chain fatty acids depending on the individual.

“We didn’t see a lot of difference between the fiber supplements we tested. Rather, they looked interchangeable,” David said during a tour of his sparkling new lab in the MSRB III building, which includes a special “science toilet” for collecting samples and an array of eight “artificial gut” fermenters for growing happy gut microbes outside a body.

“Regardless of which of the test supplements you pick, it seems your microbiome will thank you with more butyrate,” David said.

The average American adult only consumes 20 to 40 percent of the daily recommended amount of fiber, which is believed to be a root cause behind a lot of our common health maladies, including obesity, cardiovascular disease, digestive disorders, and colon cancer. Instead of having to go totally vegetarian or consume pounds of kale daily, convenient fiber supplements have been created that can increase the production of short-chain fatty acids.

The Duke experiments tested three main kinds of fermentable fiber supplements: inulin, dextrin (Benefiber), and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) marketed as Bimuno. The 28 participants were separated into groups and given each of the three supplements for one week in different orders, with a week off between supplements to allow participants’ guts to return to a baseline state.

Participants who had been consuming the most fiber beforehand showed the least change in their microbiomes, and the type of supplement really didn’t matter, probably because they were already hosting a more optimal population of gut bugs, David said.

Conversely, participants who had been consuming the least fiber saw the greatest increase in butyrate with the supplements, regardless of which one was being consumed.

In a second study the David lab performed with support from the U.S. Office of Naval Research, they found that gut microbes responded to a new addition of fiber within a day, dramatically altering the populations of bugs present in the gut and changing which of their genes they were using to digest food.

Using their artificial gut fermenters, the researchers found the gut microbes were primed by the first dose to consume fiber and digested it quickly on the second dose.

“These findings are encouraging,” said graduate student Jeffrey Letourneau, lead author of the second study. “If you’re a low fiber consumer, it’s probably not worth it to stress so much about which kind of fiber to add. It’s just important that you find something that works for you in a sustainable way.”

“It doesn’t need to be a supplement either,” Holmes added. “It can just be a fiber-rich food. Folks who were already eating a lot of fiber, which comes from plants like beans, leafy greens, and citrus, already had very healthy microbiomes.”

References: “Microbiota Responses to Different Prebiotics Are Conserved Within Individuals and Associated with Habitual Fiber Intake,” Zachary Holmes, Max Villa, Heather Durand, Sharon Jiang, Eric Dallow, Brianna Petrone, Justin Silverman, Pao-Hwa Lin and Lawrence David, 29 July 2022, Microbiome.
DOI: 10.1186/s40168-022-01307-x

“Ecological Memory of Prior Nutrient Exposure in the Human Gut Microbiome,” Jeffrey Letourneau, Zachary Holmes, Eric Dallow, Heather Durand, Sharon Jiang, Verónica Carrion, Savita Gupta, Adam Mincey, Michael Muehlbauer, James Bain and Lawrence David, 23 July 2022, ISME Journal.
DOI: 10.1038/s41396-022-01292-x

The study was funded by the National Institutes of Health, Office of Naval Research, NASA Translational Research Institute, and the Damon Runyon Cancer Research Foundation.

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